There are no pure receiver or transmitters in a 802.11 network, all the devices have identical radio frontends (in principle). You can use any antenna you want for any part of the network as long as the interface between the antenna and the device is compatible.
However, by increasing antenna gain you might jump above the maximum allowed transmitting EIRP for unlicensed use of the frequency band where you live. If you care, you'll have to look into that yourself.
An "isotropic" antenna, like the one you linked might not be a good solution in your case, though. The value you want to increase is the SNR, not the power directly. An isotropic antenna with 4 dB higher gain, will increase the SNR by 4 dB for the access point so it will have an easier time receiving packets from you, but it will do nothing what so ever for packets going the other direction, which (hopefully) is most of them.
Since you apparently know where the AP is, you could get a directional high-gain antenna, or attempt to build one yourself. There are a number of "cantenna" projects that are easy to find on Google. A very simple and cheap solution (to gain just under 3 dB in both directions) would be to place a flat cardboard sheet covered with (wrinkle free) aluminum foil as a mirror (d = (n+0.5) 0.5 lambda) from your antenna on the side away from the AP. Iy would not have to be very big, the equivalent of a A5 sheet of paper would be more than enough.
distance d = ( n + 0.5 ) * 0.5 * lambda
n is a non-negative integer
lambda = c / f
c ~= 3 * 10^8 m/s
f is the frequency of the connection, probably close to 2.45 * 10^9 Hz
An example distance would then be (for n = 0 and f = 2.45 * 10^9 Hz)
lambda ~= 12.24 cm
d ~= 3.06 cm
(or with n=1, d ~= 9.18 cm)