If I open an audio file with Audacity or Rhythmbox, for example, I can look at the metadata tags such as Artist Name, Track Title, Year, etc. . Is there a convenient way to do this on the command line under Linux?
If it's a standard sort of tag, I believe
If it doesn't you'd likely need to find something else that dumps the format that audacity uses (apparently info tags).
You can use one of these tools:
Simple program outputting all the basic information from audio files.
exiftool (from package perl-image-exiftool)
This one is more customizable and supports reading and writing meta information in image, audio and video files.
mutagen-inspect (from package mutagen)
Simple frontend to the mutagen audio tagging library for Python.