I'd like to have my Ubuntu server (that also acts as a file and webserver) pre-fetch my mail from varying mail-accounts and have my Windows workstation fetch it from this Ubuntu server, in stead of directly from my mail providers.
What would such a setup be called? Is Ubuntu in such a setup acting like an MTA, a mail-proxy, a mail-gateway, or are those all synonymous terms perhaps, or is it acting as something else maybe?
And what would be the bare minimum of tools I would need to set this up?
My goal is to have the Ubuntu server act as sort of a mail backup system, so that I can always refetch the mail from this server in case of a workstation failure for instance, without having to rely on keeping mail on my mail-providers' servers.