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I have a Lenovo ThinkPad R500. I took out the original HDD and installed an SSD drive.

It ran well for a month and then suddenly froze while restarting.
The SSD was formatted and Windows 7 re-installed.

Now the computer only displays an error telling me to "check cable". It starts up and runs on the original disk and I can connect the SSD through the USB port and read everything that is on it.

Does anyone know this problem or better, the solution to it?

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SSD's are a relatively new technology, the chances are that some driver adversely affected the drive in some way so as to stop it being bootable. The fact you can still see and read all your files indicates the file system is not completely damaged, though.

I would try backing up your data, updgrading the firmware on the SSD to the latest available from the manufacturer, then updating your laptop's chipset drivers, if necessary, after reinstalling Windows on the SSD.

It might also be worth upgrading your BIOS and seeing if that helps in any way, but the sudden onset of the issue to me suggests a driver issue or even potentially malware.

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From what you're telling it boils down to your SSD is readable but not bootable.

As @deed02392 suggests, firmware might be the cause for this.

But it could also mean that there is simply no boot loader on the SSD, the Windows partition isn't set as bootable and/or active.

This should definitely be checked before installing new firmware.

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