Nope. The 'charging' isn't a feature of USB, it's just the device using the voltage supplied by the USB port, which the ports are always supplying (sometimes even when the computer is "off").
Unless your system's motherboard BIOS allows you to make adjustments like that to the ports (which I've never seen personally) I think you're out of luck.
Also, depending on the phone itself there may be a way to disable it, but that would depend on the phone. There is a utility written for (some) Android sets that supposedly disabled the charging on the phone called USBChargeCommander, never used it, but it may be worth looking into a bit:
WHAT THE HECK IS THIS?
USB Charge Commander is an application designed
for the ZTE Blade/Orange's San Francisco handset.
WHAT DOES IT DO?
It takes care of disabling the charging of the battery, and re-enabling
Handy if you just want to plug in the handset and copy a file
instead of messing up the battery by plugging it in and to unplug it a
There's a simple property set up in the init.rc, that
watches for the boolean flag and sets it according.