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When I try to ping some far away destinations (e.g. mx20.india.com), I always get a TTL exceeded response (even with the maximum value of 255).

My question: is there any other way to reach these servers?

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It is entirely possible that this is a stale MX entry and they decommissioned the subnet the server was on –  Mike Pennington May 30 '12 at 15:08
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up vote 0 down vote accepted

Their network is broken. Specifically their two routers, 180.179.87.44 ( which their DNS also erroneously identifies as mx20.india.com ) and 180.179.87.43 have a circular route and keep bouncing the packets back and forth until they time out. You can see this by running trouceroute.

They will need to fix their broken routers for you to reach this server.

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When I ran traceroute, the packages got routed first to some routers of Tata communication, but around TTL 24, I no longer see any information at all. How exactly could you see the problem lies with the owners of india.com? –  JeffersonB May 30 '12 at 15:28
    
@JeffersonB, because for me, after hop 23, it started bouncing back and forth between those two routers. –  psusi May 30 '12 at 15:35
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