First and foremost, if you haven't already, use a surge protector. So many people pay good money for their computer, monitor and peripherals but will not spend the few extra dollars to protect it. If you already have one, your PC should be OK.
ESD, short for electrostatic discharge, can cause all kinds of damage/problems. You are correct, these problems are not always readily evident. Worse, there are not always tools to test for them as the equipment is working now. This means you can run all kinds of tests which may not show evidence of damage.
However, for peace of mind, run CHKDSK /R on your drives to ensure your data and programs are OK. You can run MEMTEST86 to check your memory. Also, look at Everest as a tool for checking other hardware. As far as more specific diagnostics, you may need to research those tools from the manufacturer of your PC.