The recommended method I found indicates you should use entries like the following in your /etc/fstab file to prevent mounting:
UUID=FAB060E9-79F7-33FF-BE85-E1D3ABD3EDEA none hfs rw,noauto
As I understand it, entries for known discs will be treated preferentially by their fstab entry over any automount/other behaviors.
Also, according to the linked information, you should be able to use the following to determine disk/partition UUIDs:
diskutil info /path/to/disk
On hindsight, this isn't really a "whitelist" operation so much as a "blacklist" operation, but it is the only solution I can think of.