Let me start by saying I exclusively use Excel to view things and that's where my experience ends.
I have two sheets with some common data, and most importantly, a column in each that has the same key (format is 0.xxxxx where "xxxxx" is a number from 1 to 12000). Each sheet has some unique data - for example one sheet has names, the other does not. I want to essentially merge these (non-destuctively) into a single sheet. I've tried some options with "VLOOKUP", but I'm not really understanding the nuances of this. I assume this is probably a one-button operation as it seems like a fairly common database-like thing to do (in fact last time I had to do this I dumped the spreadsheets into postgres and dealt with it there).