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How to perform a hard refresh in current versions of firefox, IE, chrome and Safari for windows and MacOX (I guess this is a total of 8 questions)?

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

Safari on OS X

  • Hold shift while pressing the reload button

Chrome on OS X

  • Press shift-command-R
  • Hold shift, command, or control (or any additional modifier keys) while pressing the reload button

In Safari and Chrome you can see if any resources were loaded from a local cache by checking for 304 Not Modified responses in the network tab of the web inspector. has instructions for common browsers on different platforms.

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On windows it's Ctrl+Shift+R for most of the browsers.

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