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In ~/.tmux.conf, with

 bind-key v split-window "vim"

I can launch vim in a split window.

how I can use two keys in a tmux bind-key ?
Example:

 bind-key vG split-window "vim +$"
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up vote 2 down vote accepted

You cannot. tmux only allows single-key bindings (either alone, using bind-key -n, or following the prefix key).

However, you might try binding "v" to an invocation of command-prompt:

bind-key v command-prompt "tmux-vim.bash %%"

where tmux-vim.bash looks something like

if [ $1 = "G" ]; then
    tmux split-window "vim +$"
fi

Then, after typing v to get to the command prompt, you would just type "G" and press Enter. "G" would be passed as the argument to tmux-vim.bash, and that script would take care of executing the tmux command you (originally) wanted to associate with "vG".

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1  
    
You'd think I would have remembered answering that well enough to link to it myself :) – chepner Jul 10 '12 at 12:32

As @chepner said, you cannot do this directly. What you can do is bind v to create a binding for G that does what you want and then unbinds itself.

bind-key v bind-key -n G split-window "vim +$" \\; unbind -n G

There are a couple of important things to note with this approach:

  1. This will conflict with existing top-level bindings (in this case G); If you want to have something bound to G and something else bound to vG your unbinding step needs to restore the original binding.
  2. tmux will segfault if your .tmux.conf includes a bind-key statement that is too long. If this becomes a problem, you can work around it by putting your context switching in bash scripts and then bind a key to run those scripts.

For a more involved example, see this gist.

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Beyond the command-prompt approach suggested on the other answers, you can have a second set of mappings using a different prefix:

     prefix key
         Set the key accepted as a prefix key.

     prefix2 key
         Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.

Thus you could do the following:

set -g prefix C-v
bind-key G split-window "vim +$"

to map to c-v g instead of c-b vG. The downside is that it will shadow any default mapping, as it will also be accessible through c-b g.

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