Given that this page is the number one hit from Google when searching for running Android/linux apps on GNU/linux, it really deserves a better answer. Fortunately, I've come up with one that is very easy: simply run the android-x86 live CD using Linux's kvm (kernel-based virtual machine).
Download the latest boot CD (android-x86.iso): https://sourceforge.net/projects/android-x86/files/latest/download
Boot the iso file in a virtual machine using qemu/kvm:
kvm -m 1024 -vga vmware -soundhw ac97 -boot d -cdrom android-x86.iso
That's all you need if you want to just run some apps once. If you want persistent storage, you'll need a couple extra steps:
Create a file to act as the hard drive:
qemu-image create -f qcow2 android.img 1G
Install android-x86 on that "drive":
kvm -hda android.img -m 1024 -vga vmware -soundhw ac97 -boot d -cdrom android-x86.iso
You'll have to create a new partition using 'cfdisk', but it sounds like you're familiar enough with GNU/Linux that that won't be a problem. Once the install is done, you can run android directly instead of using the boot CD:
kvm -hda android.img -m 1024 -vga vmware -soundhw ac97
As I said, I've tested out this solution and it works great. I was able to add a Google account, connect to the Play store, and install an app with no problems. Networking worked magically, using the host's connection, so I'd assume your WWAN would be no problem. I do not know about your GPS device, however.