How can I do this on the command line?
e.g. copy /dir/another/file to /tmp/ so I have /tmp/dir/another/file
cp --parents /dir/another/file /tmp
will do exactly what you want.
You can use tar to preserve paths while copying files:
tar cf - /dir/another/file | (cd /tmp && tar xf -)
rsync can be a good help for this :
rsync -Ravz my/first/dir/file.txt another_dir
will gave as result
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2 years ago