I replaced the motherboard in an old laptop (well not that old, it's still a decent gaming computer). In the process I had to completely disassemble the laptop to do so, meaning all connections, etc. I replaced the motherboard and started it up.
The problem I noticed from the beginning, was that even before I load into Windows (Vista), the keyboard mappings for many keys were swapped with others, for example. 'S' and 'esc', 'D' and 'page down', 'C' and 'Enter', 'Right Arrow' and 'F8', and others. I noticed it first while in the BIOS, making sure all the settings were correct, I had to use the 'S' key to leave a page. It makes me believe it is a hardware issue and not a configuration, since my regional settings in Windows is US, the Keyboard is set to US, and no other languages are being used.
I tried countless solutions from the web and nothing, except hacking the registry with 3rd party programs, helped. Even using those programs, once I load up some other programs, like a game, the keys are back to being swapped. I tried removing and making sure the keyboard ribbon cable is correctly and firmly in the slot in the motherboard to no avail. I fear I am at my wits end and the keyboard may just be bad. Anything else I could try?