Hi, myself of the past !
This is a very interesting question, and i think i've got an answer for you.
The localized folders are actually symbolic links to their english counter parts. The original english folders are hidden system files. This way the user only sees the folders in their language but they are still accessible under their english names. This is a big plus of Windows Vista/7 because before if a script accessed C:\Program Files it was not usable under non-english versions of Windows.
You can show the hidden original english folders if you go to tools -> folder options -> show system files (or something similiar, out of my head).
I don't think you can create symbolic links as system files, but you can create your own symbolic links of course, so that you'll have something that works in a very similar way.
To achieve this launch a command prompt and then use this command :
mklink /D "path_to_translated_folder" "path_to_english_counterpart"
To repeat this for every folder you have, i suggest you create a batch file to run (but i know you already have, since you're basically, well... me).
Anyways, i've got more advice for you : the folders you have created are links, so they will have that (arguably) ugly arrow that will make them appear somewhat special, not blending well into the rest of your UI.
There are lots of methods on the internet to get rid of that arrow, but as of my experience some of them including messing with the registry won't work forever, they will break after a certain amount of time. To avoid this i suggest you use a tool named Windows Shortcut Arrow Editor