There is a very good, detailed answer on using
As user1461135 said, you need to add the iso to your Virtual Machine, boot using it and then mount your
/ partition. So, first of all check the name of your
/ partition. Log into your Linux System and run:
$ mount | grep "/ "
This should return a line like:
/dev/disk/by-uuid/d5cf13h31-f344-41237-92c5-e29c6006442h60 on / type
or like this:
/dev/sda7 on / type ext4
In the first case, your partition is mounted by its UUID. To find out which device this UUID corresponds to run:
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/
You will see that the UUID returned by
mount corresponds to a specific
/dev/sdX device. ON my system, it is
/dev/sda7. If you have a line like the second example above, you already know the device.
Now, boot into the live session from the CD as suggested in the comments, create an empty directory, and mount your system there:
$ mkdir mountpoint
$ sudo mount /dev/sda7 mountpoint
Remember to replace
sda7 with whatever your partition is. Once the system is mounted, I am not even sure you will need chroot. You can probably just run the chmod command directly:
$ sudo chmod 755 mountpoint/etc
Now, reboot your Linux system and things should be back to normal.