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I'm new in the use of the terminal. I have seen in a video that uses ls -al and I don't know what it is. I have found that ls -a is to list all the files even the hidden but I cannot find what does ls -al means. In the same terminal I write man ls -al and it says man: "invalid option -- l" So:

  • What does ls -al mean ?
  • Where can I this kind of information. Is there any kind of manual or tutorial for very beginners like me ?
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migrated from stackoverflow.com Sep 16 '12 at 13:01

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up vote 2 down vote accepted

ls lists all the files in a folder

ls -a lists all the files, including hidden files

ls -l lists all the files, in "long format" which basically tells you anything you needed to know about the files

ls -al is a combination of ls -a and ls -l

You can find more information about a command by typing man <command>, ex: man ls will give you more information about ls. To exit man hit q.

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If I type: "man ls -al" I get: "man: invalid option -- l" Anyway, now thanks to you I already know what does it mean. Thank you! – Narcís Sep 15 '12 at 16:31
    
@Narcís oh, you can't use the arguments with man, you have to just use the man command and skim through the article to see what the arguments mean. – Kevin Johnson Sep 15 '12 at 20:52
    
And if this solved your question you might want to mark it as accepted, by clicking the green checkmark next to the answer that helped you most. – Kevin Johnson Sep 15 '12 at 20:54
    
Both answers Lipongo and Kevin are clear and very good. Thank you both! – Narcís Sep 16 '12 at 8:43

The command ls is for listing directory contents or file information. The option -a if for listing all files. The option -l means long listing, more detailed information. When you combine them in ls -al you should get the long listing of all files, including hidden files.

If you google "Unix beginner tutorial guide" you should come up with a lot of usable sites to learn from.

From the error you are getting, the - you are placing is not the right kind. This is possibly from copying and pasting the command from elsewhere.

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If I type: "man ls -al" I get: "man: invalid option -- l" Anyway, now thanks to you I already know what does it mean. Thank you! – Narcís Sep 15 '12 at 16:31
    
type man ls not man ls -la. – Lipongo Sep 15 '12 at 16:50
  • -a means include all files, including the current directory, parent directory and files whose names begin with a dot.
  • -l means display in long format.

To find out how the arguments affect the output of a command, use man command to see the documentation for the command. For example, man ls.

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