On an ordinary data CD or DVD, no, you can't do that.
The data you "see" when reading from the disc is not a direct dump of the pits and lands on its surface; the disc surface contains additional data, such as sync patterns to mark the beginning and end of each sector, address numbers to tell the drive which sector it's looking at, and error-correction data to compensate for smudges or imperfections in the recording. Everything is encoded with a special algorithm, EFM, that ensures a roughly even mix of ones and zeroes on the disc surface so that the signal from the drive's optical pickup can be self-clocking.
An unrecorded surface has none of that. If the drive were to look at it, it would read a long stream of zero bits, but the EFM decoder expects to see a one after at most ten zeroes for clock recovery purposes. The drive would drift out of sync with the disc's rotation so there's no way to be certain just how many zeros have passed under the laser. Beyond that, there are no sync patterns or sector addresses, so the drive can't divide up the stream of zeroes into bytes, and wouldn't know whether the bytes it read are the ones you asked for anyway.
In a nutshell: unrecorded surface has no sectors for the drive to read payloads from.
The situation is different if you're talking about a disc that's been formatted for "packet writing" usage. The formatting process records valid sectors across the whole disc surface, and all those sectors have valid, readable (though perhaps zero or meaningless) contents, so you can read the whole disc. This kind of usage is more like a hard drive, which also has sectors across the whole platter surface, preformatted at the factory.