Probably not. Word keeps the autosave files in a temporary folder, but it gets deleted when you shutdown the computer. The print spool service also has a temporary folder is uses for spooled files, but those get deleted immediately after printing.
If you haven't restarted your computer, you could try looking in the autosave folder.
And if the file is really, really important, you could run an undelete utility such as photorec. It can scan for files based on their type and extension; have it search for Word files. Depending on your hard drive size, this will take hours to days to complete.
Here's hoping you find your pen drive (or backed up the file elsewhere).