Will blocks diagnosed as bad by Linux badblocks command be marked as "bad" in Windows?
In theory they would not. The command
badblocks assembles a list of bad blocks that can be used by a command that creates a partition and can take a list of bad blocks as input. One such command is
However all this applies only to older disk drives that do not perform automated background sector testing and relocation. Absolute majority of drives that can be bought today will not show their badblocks to
badblocks. Instead they would silently relocate badblocks away until they run out of reserved capacity. When the reserved capacity gets depleted many consumer and some enterprise drives will stop responding to any external stimulus coming through their control interface.
badblocks test an existing windows partition?
Yes, it will. The command works on the level of a block device where there is no difference between filesystems. However the data would mainly be useful as an indication of drive wear and the risk of a loss of data.
Again modern drives hide their problems from programs like
badblocks but show them on S.M.A.R.T.
What are tools to check a disk for errors that can be used on Windows or linux?
Very detailed reports can be obtained with mhdd or Victoria. These utilities are normaly run from a bootable CD or a bootable USB flash drive.