In this cases, the speed of charging not only depends on the device or the battery, or the USB cable, but in the charger itself. The higher the current the charger delivers, the faster the charging will be. The current is measured in Amperes, in small devices you'll find miliamperes. That is, a 650 mA charger, is a 0.65 A. SO, if you want faster charging, simply try with a higher Ampere output charger.
BUT be aware, that higher amperage means higher current, and that generates more heat. and if your device can't handle it, it can literally burn. So, as long as you don't overload it, its good to go.
I'll give you a personal example. I have an old Xperia X8 phone, which charger gives 850 mA of output current. The phone charges fully in about 1 and a half hour (give or take). Once, i was running out of battery at work, and a coworker lend me his charger, made for a tablet, which outputs 2A ( 2000 mA) of current. since most chargers now have an standard micro usb plug, i could use it without a problem. My surprise was when the phone charged completely in just 20 minutes!
As for your question regarding the cable, in has very little (if not nothing) to do with the charging speed. And the prongs have absolutely nothing to do with it. They are there just for letting the cable "snap" into the phone and don't unplug by itself by accident.
Just use the cable that comes with the high current output charger, and you are good. If you use a different cable with the same car charger, you will not notice any significant difference.
NOTICE. I am not responsible if you damage your devices by connecting non standard chargers, be sure your devices can handle the current, and, as long as you detect overheating, better disconnect it!
Hope it helps!
P.S. Sorry if my English is not as good.