The example of symbols:
No, it is technically impossible to cover about 100,000 characters when font techonology sets an upper limit of 65,536 glyphs.
To check out support to some specific characters in fonts, the best starting point is usually fileformat.info. Not perfect, but very useful. For example, its information about support to U+1F680 is that it is supported by the Symbola font. (The LastResort font mentioned in the list is not a real font.) However, it is also supported by Segoe UI Symbol. (I found this out using my simple IE-only utility that checks the fonts in my computer.) It’s apparently shipped with Windows 7, but the MS page about it points to a purchase page that does not actually sell it.
Apart from font support, you may have other software issues. Many programs cannot handle characters past BMP (Unicode numbers 0 to FFFF hex.) at all, or require extra measures to deal with them; even typing them might be a problem.