This is not possible, even in principle.
If your server has a public entry in the DNS (Domain Name System), it effectively says the following:
"this IP address x.x.x.x refers to the domain a.b.c" (oversimplified; sometimes there are further levels of subdomain, and IPv6, etc.)
Since the DNS is publicly queryable, and can be done both ways (IP address to domain name or domain name to IP address), then by creating a DNS entry for your IP address, you essentially gave away that information to the whole world for free.
Assuming you own the server in question, if you completely remove your server's IP address from the DNS system, that is the only way to disassociate your server from having any domain name. If you do that, your server will still be addressable via its IP address, but not by any domain name, because no mapping between domain names and IP addresses will exist in the DNS system if you remove it.
If you don't own the server, there's absolutely nothing you can do.
The reason why this doesn't work is because, whenever a computer establishes a network connection, it is "observable": both the client and the server can see the IP address of the endpoint they're communicating with; this is the means by which they tell the network where to send their packets to. Once you have the IP address of an endpoint, that's all the info you need to perform a reverse DNS query on it and detect which domain(s) resolve to that IP address.
The only way to do this, which isn't really "a way", is to have your page/content hosted elsewhere.
For example, if you have http://example.com/content.html, and you have that page hosted in its entirety at some other website http://example2.com/content.html, then no one will be aware of the "real" address of the page http://example.com/content.html if you give out the link to example2. But that is indirection and does not allow clients to directly connect to your server/website. As soon as they directly connect to you, they've got your domain name (if you have one). Period.