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What are the recommended arguments to ssh-keygen for generating a secure ssh keypair these days? The default appears to be 2048 bit RSA, good enough?

I'm using OpenSSH_6.1p1, OpenSSL 1.0.1c 10 May 2012.

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2048 bit RSA is concidered safe until 2030. If that is good enough for you you can generate your keys with the following command:

ssh-keygen -t rsa -f $HOME/.ssh/rsa_key_file_2048

If you require a key that is safe beyond 2030 a longer key is recommended (3072 bit should suffice). You can define the key size with the -b argument:

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 3072 -f $HOME/.ssh/rsa_key_file_3072

The output of the commands are two files, the private key as defined by the -f argument and the public key with the extension .pub.

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