You can use the Sync your Settings features. I haven't tried this, but it looks promising to what you're trying to accomplish. Make sure that you have your computer configured as a trusted pc, skydrive configured/enabled, and a Microsoft Live account.
Sync Your Settings
To access these features, you need to sign into Windows 8/RT with a Microsoft account (formerly known as a Windows Live ID). It’ll ask you to do so in the first time setup of your PC, but if you choose not to then you can easily upgrade your local account in Charms – Settings - Change PC Settings – Users. I really recommend it. Synced items include:
Colours, [start screen] background and user account picture
Themes, taskbar, high contrast and more
- Passwords (once you’ve ‘trusted’ your PC – i.e. confirmed that it’s yours by logging on to an alternate email account for example)
- Ease of access
- App settings like high scores and in-app purchases
- IE settings like history and favourites
- Other Windows settings like Windows Explorer (ribbon state, quick access toolbar etc.), mouse settings and more
All these let me sign into a PC for the first time and minutes later be productive/browse the web. Especially when you combine it with the SkyDrive for Windows desktop app for my files, and the fact that the Windows Store easily lets you download apps you already own.