So far, all the commands you've listed are "external" commands - commands not built-in to the CMD interpreter. I'm guessing commands like
cls still work? If internal commands still work, try running
SET PATH to see if your path variable is still intact. Specifically, make sure it includes
%WINDIR% should be the actual, fully-qualified path to your Windows installation). Without that folder in the
PATH variable, the OS won't recognize many common "external" commands.
Another way to check your PATH variable is to use
ECHO %PATH% (typed exactly as shown here). If the system returns the exact text
%PATH%, then that means the variable is not set at all. Otherwise, it should return the variable's value - look for your System32 directory in that string.
If the System32 directory is absent from path, here's how to restore it:
- Right-click My Computer, select Properties.
- From the task pane on the left, select "Advanced system settings".
- In the System Properties dialog, go to the "Advanced" tab, and click "Environment Variables...".
- In the System variables list, scroll to and double-click the "Path" variable.
- NOTE: If there is no "Path" variable, create one (no quotes in the name) and omit the semicolon from the next step.
- At the end of the variable value, add a semicolon followed by the path to your System32 folder.
- Click OK through all three open dialogs.
- Close all open CMD windows, open a new one, and try the external commands again.