I know this is an old question, but I have run into this issue over and over again while running various versions of Chrome on OS X 10.9. I too tried the solutions at https://support.google.com/chrome/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=1367288 and http://productforums.google.com/forum/#!topic/chrome/t9iK_JcJsuA but never had any luck. I would always resort to downloading and installing the latest from Google. Today, ran into the issue again and decided that there HAD to be a solution.
After the most recent failed update attempt, I turned to the Console. A quick search for "chrome" revealed the following GoogleSoftwareUpdateDaemon error:
2/21/14 5:18:33.570 PM GoogleSoftwareUpdateDaemon: -[KSInstallAction performAction]
KSInstallAction install script failure. (productIDs: com.google.Chrome)
[com.google.UpdateEngine.CoreErrorDomain:2307 - '/tmp/KSInstallAction.6E6RqXqHyw/m/.keystone_install']
("dirpatcher.sh: can't patch nonexistent or irregular file /Applications/Google Chrome.app/Contents/Versions/32.0.1700.107/Google Chrome Framework.framework/Resources/am.lproj/locale.pak\n.keystone_install: dirpatcher of versioned directory failed, status 12\n"
A closer inspection of the "nonexistent or irregular file" in the error revealed that it had to do with a localized version of Chrome. While conducting a deeper Google search, I found a similar error message with this comment: "Do you have an application installed that removes localizations from application packages?" It was then that it dawned on me that I had been using CleanMyMac to, among other things, remove "unneeded" localization files from my machine! And, sure enough, it was removing all but the required en.lproj resources from Google Chrome, including the am.lproj folder that the updater was complaining about in the error.
My solution: Download and install the latest version of Google Chrome and either turn off any localization removal settings in cleaner apps you may use or, like I did, add an exception to ignore Chrome during cleaning.