When logging in, stackexchange sites offer SE, Google, Facebook, and Yahoo logins, using 4 buttons. However, on my desktop, when I hover over those buttons, they do not display the yellow border and do not react to clicks. This only happens on my desktop machine, and only on IE 10 (I have three different machines running windows 8, and only the one exhibits this behavior). Since there is no way of reinstalling IE, I don't know what to do. Reseting IE doesn't work. Could it be a cookie issue? I tried deleting all of my history, but that didn't resolve the problem.
I've pinpointed the error from my comment above, and it seem that this line
was having trouble accessing the session storage, because I wasn't running IE with administrator privileges. Once I did, the login buttons worked. While this doesn't really tell the story of WHY IE behaves this way without admin privileges, it solves my StackExchange login and Google+ notification problem (I had this problem too).
EDIT: It was the enhanced protected mode setting which the Metro app has enabled by default. This setting enables the XSS filter which verifies the credibility of the site you want to log in to.
I'm running Windows 8 on both a desktop, and on a Microsoft Surface device. I also use Google to log into Stack Exchange. I can tell you that it works for me on both devices. I've tried both desktop IE and "metro" IE and they both work.
Maybe it is your IE settings? On the desktop version of IE press F12 - you should see a window pop up and at the top it should have some mode indicators. Note that the mode is site specific, so you may want to do this when on Stack Exchange. In any case, the indicators should say IE 10, standards mode. If not, that may be your problem. You can change the mode by clicking on the indicators.