Knowing that there are many different file systems (FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, ReFS, EXT2/3/4, ZFS, HPFS, HFS+, CDFS, etc), I assume that they are all used for different things. I know that EXTs are used in *nix products, and that NTFS is the default file system for Windows XP through to 8.
Other than features, how are file systems better at more files, or smaller files, or larger files, or larger space? What makes them so special for the types of files they have, and why can't there just be one standard FS that everyone reads, understands, and can use with their operating systems? I know FAT32 is fairly standard, but lacks security. Other than that, why?