Is there any software available for Ubuntu like Desktop Earth? It is actually more than wallpaper. It updates the sun map as the time of day passes.
Maybe by using a script scheduled with cron to uses xplanet to generate the required view ("-num_times 1") and sets the generated image as a wallpaper?
Edit: this tutorial describes actually very well what I was thinking of.
I made this app a short while back which may interest you
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