I am aware that this is probably a common question, yet I did not find the right search terms to use. I have to buy a new hard drive. I figured out that the equation consists of: connector standard, rpm and density. My question is: Will I experience the benefits of 7200 rpm over 5400 or will SATA2 limit the speeds below the capabilities of the drive? I'm looking for a 3.5" 500 gb drive. Second question: Is data density same for all hard drives with 3.5" platters, holding 500 gb ? If not, is there any way I can tell one from another? The drive will be used for everyday multitasking and gaming - not so much large file transfers.
The SATA-II (3.0 Gbit/sec) interface tops out around 270MB per second.
Top speed of 15000 RPM SAS enterprise drives is nearly 200 MB/sec. Still way below SATA-II throughput.
So no, SATA-II does not impose a limit to either 5400 RPM or 7200 RPM drives.
1 TB drives are only a fraction more expensive than 500 GB drives.
No, increased density means fewer platters are needed for the same capacity. So producers usually use the highest available density to cut down on cost. This means a typical more modern drive will have higher density platters, resulting in better performance and lower production costs.
Read the drives manual (usually found on-line).
HDD only have two advantages over SSDs: Larger capacity (at a identical price), and decent large file performance. Since the latter is not important to you, consider a SSD. Performance on those is noticeably better.
Based on my first-hand experience developing firmware for disk controllers, here's an answer from a different perspective. You question seems to based on a misconception that, somehow, R/W_head-to-platter transfer rates affect the drive-to-host transfer rate. The reality is that these two I/O transfers are separate operations, and do not interact on any level other than one follows the other.
There is a widespread misconception that the data bits read off the disk platter can be immediately put on the (SATA) interface. This misconception implies that the slow read rate can/will inhibit the faster rate of the interface. The problem is that the HDD does not operate in that manner.
Here's an analogy:
So what combination of transportation will get you to your destination in the least amount of time?
A HDD operates in a similar manner, that is, two distinct and separate phases.
The platter RPM is a operational specification that simply has no relation to the performance of the SATA interface, or vice versa. For data throughput, the platter characteristics will be the dominant term over the interface. But do not confuse a dominant item in a summation as an inter-dependence relationship.
I'd like to clarify something on the effect of rotation speed VS interface bandwidth. Rotational speed has almost no effect on transfer rates, it instead directly effects seek speed. It does have a small effect on throughput but platter density usually has a much higher effect on throughput (especially per $ spent). If your looking for maximum IOPS outside of a SSD then you can also buy a larger slower drive, say a 2TB 7200RPM instead of a 600GB 10K RPM drive and short stroke it by half and end up with more IOPS then you would with the 10K drive and still have more space in the fast section, and also have a 1TB "archive" section thats slower.