Just create aliases (Mac's equivalent of shortcuts) to the folders you want easy access to. You can do this by dragging them into the right side of the Dock, or by holding Command and Option as you drag them to some convenient location like your desktop (Command-Option tells the Finder to create an alias instead of copying). When you open one of the aliases, it'll mount the shared folder. You can store your password in your keychain if you don't want to be prompted. Open another and it'll find the relevant folder via the existing connection.
BTW, another way to do something similar is to mount the shared folder, then open System Preferences -> Users & Groups -> your account in the sidebar -> Login Items tab, and drag the shared folder into the list of login items. This will make it open (i.e. mount) every time you log in. You can also use both methods together.