So on my C: drive, there was a file called BOOTSECT.BAK. Not knowing what it is, I opened it up in HxD and the first 14 bytes were
B \0 O \0 O \0 T \0 M \0 G \0 R \0 corresponding to the UTF-16LE string
BOOTMGR. After some research, I found out this is the VBR for Windows. This is installed onto sector 63 (or 2048 on Vista+).
After more research, it turns out to be a copy of the VBR, not the actual thing. That confused me as I am pretty sure I heard somewhere that Windows gives it its own file somewhere in
C:\Windows\boot. I also heard that Windows assigns the MBR a file in one of those directories.
TL;DR: Can NTFS (or any other file system for that matter) assign a file outside of the partition? Most likely with negative integers or LBA of the start sector (i.e. -2048 for sector offset or 2048 for LBA)