There is no direct
process <-> battery life relationship, the thing that uses battery life up (that could be associated with a process) are side effects of the process running. Here is a list of things that I could come up from the top of my head.
- CPU - The CPU is a constant draw of power in your system. Many laptops will slow/shut down parts of the CPU to save battery life but if a program has a high CPU % the processor will never be able to go in to that low power state
- GPU - The GPU is a bigger draw than the CPU but is not used most of the time. If the program has any kind of 3D it may increase the batter drain
- Hard Disk access - If you are using a spinning disk HDD it takes energy to spin up from idle that platter. If a program has a lot of I/O to the disk or causes the swap file to be read from a lot that can drain your battery.
- DVD Drive access - The DVD drive has motor just like the HDD and will spend energy just the same. It also has a low power laser that needs to be run which also contributes a small power draw.
- Network Card - The network card also takes a bit of power to function, if you're constantly downloading it can't go into low-power state either. (Thanks Thomas)
This list likely is missing some things that could contribute, but as I said, it came from the top of my head.
For the measuring aspect you can use Windows Event Tracing to monitor all of the above items on my list on a per process basis and generate reports to find out what is using each reasource