Which Win 7 are you running?
It was pre-installed with the machine by HP?
It should have no issues whatsoever accessing USB devices via any port. You don't need extra drivers and all drives should be fine on it.
As your drives do not fail to access on any other computer, we can conclude they are operational; so not one of the 'ducks' which are culpable here.
That eliminates all but Win7 installation or the hardware.
Since USB wireless adapter works on every port then hardware isn't at fault, unless the TP-link uses signficantly less voltage than a pen drive (almost certainly not), not being an electrical engineer it is only an estimate of what I understand as the wireless adapter would have a transmitting circuit.
Unless there is something which has been added to your Win7 installation to impede the code which should allow access to volumes via USB ports - overly eager AntiVirus execution interception, or your installation has been compromised by malware...
Ok, what happens when you connect a HD via USB ports? Does it make any difference if you connect a powered HD - that is an external HD that has it's own powersouce?
From the argument it would seem to suggest your Win7 installation needs redoing.