No, there is no "Trashcan" equivalent for the RM command. Recovery at this point is hard, but may not be impossible.
In order to work out what techniques may be available for recovery we need to find out what format the drive is. Can you provide the path to the deleted files and a copy of /etc/fstab before you shut down the system ? This should hopefully confirm that it is an ext4 system (but it could be anything - ext2,ext3,ext4,reiser,vfat for a start).
IMPORTANT - DO NOT CONTINUE TO USE THAT DRIVE. The more you continue to use the drive the harder it will be to get any data off it. Ideally you want to unmount the drive (and if its a boot drive boot from a rescue disk)
Once we know the format of the partition we can look to see if there are any undelete tools available for it. (If not, we can always try photorec, but that is a slow solution and will recover a lot of stuff you don't want, while not providing any pointers to what you do want !!!)