When using an Exchange account, Outlook does not periodically poll the server for new messages as is necessary with POP3 or IMAP accounts. Instead, the Exchange Server uses push notifications to inform the Outlook client when new messages have arrived.
For this reason, the only control you have over how often Outlook checks for mail from an Exchange account is the Work Offline button. All of the other Send and Receive options in the Outlook application have no effect with an Exchange account. Unfortunately Outlook doesn't have any options in the UI for specifying to go offline and online according to a schedule.
Your options/workarounds for controlling Send/Receive behavior in Outlook with an Exchange account are:
- Manually invoke the Work Offline button when you want to check for new mail. Keep in mind that while you're offline messages you send will not be sent until you go back online.
Create the illusion Outlook has not received any mail until you're ready to look at it:
A. Turn off all New Message notifications in Outlook Options
B. Create a custom view for your Inbox folder that hides new messages received today. Use it when you don't want to know about new email you've recently received.
Option 2 has its flaws. By far the best work around I've found is to manually employ the Work Offline button.