As the title says, what is the difference between UDP hole punching and STUN?
Or is it the same?
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hole punching and STUN are quite different things.
STUN will allow a system to work out what its external IP address is (if, as is common, it is located behind a NATing firewall or equivalent). It is really of use where the IP address of the Internet connection is dynamically assigned.
[UDP] hole punching allows a mapping from a real world IP address to a specific box behind a NATing firewall - This is a security thing, but much more importantly required because of the 1:many relationship NAT introduces - so the NATing router needs to know which client to send the packet too. [ For responses to regular traffic it keeps a lookup table of associations between the From IP, Dest IP and ports used (and related ports if its doing its job well) ]