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When use outlook or other desktop clients to access MS exchange, and when connect to exchange server via exchange activesync on mobile devices(iphone, windows phone, tables...), are you using the same protocol? what is the protocol difference between outlook connecting to exchange server and iphone connecting to exchange server via activesync?

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ActiveSync can push the e-mails directly to your phone (as of version 4.5). Outlook 2013 also has ActiveSync functionality.

It is intended for mobile phones. The main idea is to have the phone recieve the mails without polling the server to check for new mails on intervals, thus saving power and data usage.

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No, you are not using the same protocol. ActiveSync is only for mobile devices, not a traditional computer (PC: desktop, laptop). While Outlook 2013 does have built-in support for ActiveSync, you cannot connect to an Exchange server using ActiveSync.

See Activesync/OWA Desktop Client and my answer there for more details, discussion and additional links.

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