See this Microsoft KB article: Transfer calendars between Outlook and Google Calendar:
By using Microsoft Office Outlook 2007, you can import and export calendars from Google Calendar as Calendar Snapshots in the iCalendar format. This functionality enables you to transfer calendars between Outlook and Google Calendar.
So long as you have Outlook installed and a Google account, this requires no additional software tools. This is probably a better method, as it doesn't use the Exchange ActiveSync protocol, which has been depreciated by Google in favour of CalDAV.
Now, back to Google. From that article you posted regarding Sync's end-of-life:
Google Calendar Sync: The Google Calendar Sync download link will be
removed on December 14, 2012. Existing users can continue to use it to
sync with Microsoft Outlook Calendar, but it will no longer be
supported by Google as of December 14, 2012. Google Apps for Business,
Education, and Government customers can still use Google Apps Sync for
I know they said the download link would be removed, but as of writing this, you can still download it here.
Unfortunately, Google and Microsoft aren't exactly "friends" with this respect (fair enough, they're competing companies after all). From this article regarding Google Calendar synchronization with desktop applications, they've removed any mention to Microsoft software - the closest being to use Mozilla Sunbird as an alternative!
Again, unofficially, you can continue to synchronize as you used to in the past - Google's articles above state you can do so. However, I would try to transition to the process outlined by Microsoft's KB article at the top of this answer, or wait until Microsoft releases support for the CalDAV format.