reinstalling failed windows update turned up a number of possible answers, including this page which points out "If an update has failed to install in the past but it's listed in Installed Updates now, you don't need to "reinstall" it."
Start by checking if the update is currently installed. It may be that the failed update worked on a later attempt. That would explain why downloading the update manually reports that it is already installed.
However it may be that the installation didn't install correctly. This post has a long, and fairly complicated, procedure that may help. I haven't used it though and you will have to work out it's value for yourself.
I think since the update failed I have problems opening https websites in Chrome.
Start by checking if you have the same problems using Internet Explorer or Firefox. If the problem persists then the Windows update may be the source of the problem. If not, you've got a Chrome problem than needs investigating.