I run into this situation a lot. I have a column of data (A) and I created a formula in B1 that I wish to copy from B2 to B5. This is just a tiny example, because usually I'm dealing with thousands of rows.
What I want to do is to select B1, press ctrl-C to copy and then somehow select the range B2-B5 by using column A as some sort of reference point. IIRC, a long time ago with Excel (Lotus 1-2-3?) that you could do this all with they keyboard using ctrl/arrow/end/home key combinations.
A B 1 10 =2*A1 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50