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Short version: how can I disable/override the default SSH identity file locations ~/.ssh/id_{rsa,dsa} and force SSH to use another one (first)?

Long version:

I'm trying to setup gitolite with ssh key access. From my client I'd like to access the gitolite-admin repository with my default ~/.ssh/id_rsa identity, while I've created a separate identity ~/.ssh/id_rsa_git to access the normal repositories.

Furthermore, I created an SSH alias in ~/.ssh/config:

Host git
    Hostname <servername>
    User gitolite
    ForwardX11 no
    ForwardAgent no
    GSSAPIAuthentication no
    IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa_git

Now when I try to access the gitolite repository as non-admin user, I get

$ ssh -v git true
OpenSSH_6.0p1 Debian-4, OpenSSL 1.0.1e 11 Feb 2013
debug1: Reading configuration data /home/jaap/.ssh/config
debug1: /home/jaap/.ssh/config line 105: Applying options for git
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: /etc/ssh/ssh_config line 19: Applying options for *
debug1: Connecting to <servername> port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa_git type 1
debug1: Checking blacklist file /usr/share/ssh/blacklist.RSA-2048
debug1: Checking blacklist file /etc/ssh/blacklist.RSA-2048
debug1: identity file /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa_git-cert type -1
debug1: identity file /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: Checking blacklist file /usr/share/ssh/blacklist.RSA-1024
debug1: Checking blacklist file /etc/ssh/blacklist.RSA-1024
debug1: identity file /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_5.5p1 Debian-6+squeeze3
debug1: match: OpenSSH_5.5p1 Debian-6+squeeze3 pat OpenSSH_5*
debug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_6.0p1 Debian-4
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug1: kex: server->client aes128-ctr hmac-md5 none
debug1: kex: client->server aes128-ctr hmac-md5 none
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REQUEST(1024<1024<8192) sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_GROUP
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_INIT sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REPLY
debug1: Server host key: RSA <...>
debug1: Host '<servername>' is known and matches the RSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /home/jaap/.ssh/known_hosts:19
debug1: ssh_rsa_verify: signature correct
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug1: Roaming not allowed by server
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering RSA public key: /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg ssh-rsa blen 149
debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).

This shows that my default key ./ssh/id_rsa is offered first and gets accepted. But this key does not provide access to the non-admin repositories, so I want SSH to offer only/first ./ssh/id_rsa_git. How can I do this?

I've tried adding IdentitiesOnly=yes, but that only disables ssh-agent keys. It seems there is no option in ssh configuration (site-wide or per-user) to disable the default identities, but I also cannot find a way to specify their order.

share|improve this question
Can you configure the server to reject /home/jaap/.ssh/id_rsa when connecting as user gitolite? – chepner Mar 24 '13 at 15:18
@chepner: no, because I want to be able also to connect to gitolite@server with my ~/.ssh/id_rsa key to authenticate as gitolite-admin. – eldering Mar 24 '13 at 15:53
It seems this might be an issue/bug with openssh, see – eldering Mar 24 '13 at 15:55
up vote 5 down vote accepted

There is an SSH Config setting called IdentitiesOnly that defaults to "no". Set it to yes in your config file (globally or for a specific host) and your problem should be solved.

e.g., put this in ~/.ssh/config:

    IdentityFile ~/example/your_new.key
    User your_user
    IdentitiesOnly yes

From the Man page for ssh_config:

         Specifies that ssh(1) should only use the authentication identity
         files configured in the ssh_config files, even if ssh-agent(1) or a
         PKCS11Provider offers more identities.  The argument to this keyword
         must be ``yes'' or ``no''.  This option is intended for situations
         where ssh-agent offers many different identities.  The default is

I was having the exact same problem (and getting locked out by fail2ban). This fixed it.

share|improve this answer
Indeed, this is solution, although my specific problem turned out to be that I still had the id_rsa and id_dsa keys loaded for Host * in my ssh config. – eldering Mar 6 '14 at 21:22

Not sure why your setup is not working as expected but you can get around it by passing a specific identity to ssh:

ssh -i ./ssh/id_rsa_git git

From the man page:

 -i identity_file
         Selects a file from which the identity (private key) for
         public key authentication is read.  The default is
         ~/.ssh/identity for protocol version 1, and
         ~/.ssh/id_dsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa and ~/.ssh/id_rsa for
         protocol version 2.  Identity files may also be speci‐
         fied on a per-host basis in the configuration file.  It
         is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple
         identities specified in configuration files).  ssh will
         also try to load certificate information from the file‐
         name obtained by appending to identity file‐

It might also be because the host is known. Try deleting the relevant line (line 19) from your .ssh/known_hosts file and then connecting again.

share|improve this answer
No, the problem is that even if I add another key, the default identity is offered first! And it is accepted, but it doesn't allow me to access the specific git repository, since that access is based on which SSH key is used for authentication. – eldering Mar 23 '13 at 16:56
Even if you explicitly set the identify file using -i? – terdon Mar 23 '13 at 16:56
No, still ~/.id_rsa is offered first. What does work, is to delete all keys from my ssh-agent; this I find very strange since the IdentitiesOnly=yes option should suppress any keys in the agent. – eldering Mar 23 '13 at 17:00
I found I had to do ssh -i .ssh/id_rsa_git -F /dev/null git to cancel out the configuration file's effect. – Flimm May 8 '15 at 9:58

I find it best not to store identity files (keys) in the ~/.ssh directory, since it is known to the SSH client, which (as you have noticed) has an annoying tendency to try all identities it finds in this directory, even when you explicitly specify a sole identity file for it to use.

I store all of my identity files in another directory (~/.ssh2) that is not directly known to the SSH client. The only file in ~/.ssh is config, which contains a series of {host -> key-to-use} stanzas.

With this configuration, the only way for the SSH client to find a given identity file is for you to specify it on the command line with -i, or for you to add a stanza naming the identity file in ~/.ssh/config.

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