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I don't understand how some sites (e.g. https://www.ultratools.com/tools/geoIpResult) show country and town for an IP address. For example 193.45.10.135:

Continent:  Europe
Country:  Germany
Country Code:  DE
Country CF:  99
Region: 
State:  Hamburg
State Code: 
State CF:  82
DMA: 
MSA: 
City:  Hamburg
Postal Code:  20001
Timezone:  Greenwich Mean Time
Area Code: 
City CF:  66
Latitude:  53.56111172
Longitude:  10.01805607

This is Akamai's IP address, so it's unlikely that someone using internet through a hotspot located in a datacenter via a tablet with GPS. And there are no LOC DNS records on this IP.

Whois records only show the country:

inetnum:        193.45.10.128 - 193.45.10.255
netname:        SE-AKAMAI
descr:          Akamai International BV
org:            ORG-AIB6-RIPE
country:        DE
admin-c:        NARA1-RIPE
tech-c:         NARA1-RIPE
status:         ASSIGNED PA
mnt-by:         TELIANET-LIR
source:         RIPE # Filtered

So, is there some database where this data is located (maybe RIPE)?

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1 Answer

Check out this excellent Wikipedia article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geolocation_software

The primary source for IP address data is the regional Internet registries which allocate and distribute IP addresses amongst organizations located in their respective service regions:

  • African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC)
  • American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
  • Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)
  • Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry (LACNIC)
  • RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)

Secondary sources include:

  • Data mining or user-submitted geographic location data. For example, a weather web site might ask visitors for a city name to find their local forecast. Another example would be to pair a user's IP address with the address information in his/her account profile.
  • Data contributed by internet service providers.
  • Merging databases from different suppliers.
  • Guesstimates from adjacent Class C range[5] and/or gleaned from network hops.

Accuracy is improved by:

  • Data scrubbing to filter out or identify anomalies.
  • Statistical analysis of user submitted data.
  • Utilizing third-party tests conducted by reputable organizations.
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You should at least try and summarise or mention the main points here in your answer. –  Karan Apr 14 '13 at 21:34
    
I already read this. The question is, HOW this databases are making (especially for datacenter ip range). –  Sloan Apr 14 '13 at 21:48
1  
Well, that is usually the secret of creating GeoIP databases, so I doubt that you'll get the full details. But there are many ways, including looking at hops close to the intended destination, analysing latency and determining possible distances and locations. –  Sander Steffann Apr 14 '13 at 21:51
1  
Also, this article may be helpful (and no Karan, I will not summarize it as these are already short and to the point): stackoverflow.com/questions/788408/… –  Dima Apr 14 '13 at 21:57
    
I tried traceroute for this ip, previous is located in Sweden. –  Sloan Apr 14 '13 at 22:15
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