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How do OSes (Mac/Windows/Linux) manage Fonts?

Does the OS load a copy of each installed Font into memory, which can then be used by any application requiring that font? Does this mean that installing too many unused fonts (especially the heavy -- multiple MB -- ones) will consume memory unnecessarily?

Or does each app load a copy of (only) the fonts it needs. How does it know which all fonts are installed?

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Most operating systems have a directory where fonts are installed. In Linux, for example, it is one of /usr/local/share/fonts, /usr/share/fonts, ~/fonts. Programs that can use fonts will either scan these folders or read the available fonts from a list generated by another program. In Linux this is done by fc-cache.

In any case, a font does not need to be loaded to memory unless it is being used. A program only needs to know the paths where available fonts can be found. Once a user requests a specific font, then that font is selected from the available ones and used.

So, no, installing multiple fonts will not consume memory. It will make the process of generating the font cache slower (and, perhaps more memory intensive), but that only needs to be run if a new font is added.

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First: Everything your computer uses, displays etc. has to be loaded into memory - there is no way around that. Short and simple explanation of Memory.

Second: You can install all the fonts you want. Like most things on your computer, the fonts will also be indexed - so time to find, access these fonts will not change noticably. Some more Information about indexing.

Third: An Application generally only loads what it needs - loading everything in case it might be needed is bad software design. There are API's that the underlying operating system offers Applications in order to access things like fonts, see this Link: Windows API

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