I am a Linux guy, but am trying to be open-minded and learn some Powershell. I miss the ability to
cd - back to a previous directory, like in *nix shells. Is there a similar command in Powershell—one that would allow me to return to my previous directory?
Not in exactly the same fashion that I am aware of. One option is to use pushd instead of cd. Then popd will take you back.
You could also change your profile so that whenever a new prompt comes up (basically whenever you hit enter). It would get the PWD and compare that to the previous one. If they are different, then put that value onto a stack. Then you would include another function in your profile called something like cdb that would pop the last item off the stack and cd to it.
This sounded like fun so I came up with a solution. Put all this code into your profile (about_Profiles).
Now you can cd just like normal and bd will take you back on location in your location history.