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Why does cloning (via ssh) my own repository from github require my passphrase?
So as a consequence: Would it be a huge safety-issue if I generate some ssh keys without a passphrase (for working on small opensource projects)?

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Why does cloning (via ssh) my own repository from github require my passphrase?

Because your SSH client cannot decrypt your key without knowing the passphrase, and without a decrypted key it cannot connect to the server and run git-upload-pack there.

So as a consequence: Would it be a huge safety-issue if I generate some ssh keys without a passphrase

Not much, as long as you keep your computer secure (both physically and otherwise).

However, one key for all Github usage should be enough. Most SSH clients have an "agent" program that allows keys to be unlocked once and kept in memory: GNOME Keyring, ssh-agent, PuTTY Pageant, gpg-agent...

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Most SSH clients have an "agent" program that allows keys to be unlocked once and kept in memory Means I only should have to enter the key once per sessions? In that case this doesn't work for me. I am running windowns. But i know the git bash client has an ssh-agent. –  Sensei May 12 '13 at 20:56
    
@Sensei: On Windows, you have ssh-agent for use with git's ssh, as well as Pageant for use with PuTTY (or if you set GIT_SSH=plink). –  grawity May 12 '13 at 21:46
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