If your laptop has Wi-Fi with recent enough drivers, probably the easiest way is to use the Wireless Hosted Network feature provided by Windows 7 to create a software Wi-Fi access point on your laptop, and then use the Internet Connection Sharing feature to allow Wi-Fi clients (your Android device) use the internet connection through that access point. You will not need to install any additional software on your Android device — just set up a Wi-Fi connection.
Windows does not provide any builtin GUI to set up a software Wi-Fi access point (only some
netsh commands), but you can use third-party software for this:
If you must use the USB cable connection for any reason, you need to set up reverse tethering on your Android device. Unfortunately, this feature is not provided by standard Android, and third-party apps will most likely require a rooted device. A better place to ask about this is the Android Enthusiasts site — search for ”reverse tethering” there (e.g., see this question).