Machine: Toshiba Satellite Pro S300
OS: Ubuntu 13.04 (Also observed on 12.10)
Drive: 128 GB Crucial SSD
After each crash (or upgrade), my Toshiba fails to boot citing an internal HDD error.
And subsequently performs a series of checks (Figure 1).
In order to fix this, I must use a live Ubuntu 13.04 USB and boot using the "Try Ubuntu" feature. Then, shutting down and removing the USB makes the system start up normally with no obvious issue. I do not yet understand how it is possible for a live OS boot to fix what seems like a hardware/firmware issue.
Any additional information will be added as edits.