I got it working. There were a couple of things that I learned that might be helpful. First of all, I was following this guide.
VirtualBox currently has problems with USB 3 ports. Check that your device is plugged into a USB 2 port. After I did that, my device was able to be detected by
vboxmanage list usbhost on my Windows host.
Unfortunately, this didn't completely solve my issue. VirtualBox would list the phone under the Devices menu, and I could select it, but Lubuntu gave me no indication that a device was connected. In fact,
adb devices both came up empty. I ran
dmesg and found this error message:
[ 846.648000] usb 1-1: new high speed USB device using ehci_hcd and address 1
[ 846.675000] usb 1-1: device descriptor read/64, error -32
[ 846.884000] usb 1-1: device descriptor read/64, error -32
I found the following thread and set this variable, which solved my problem.
echo Y | sudo tee /sys/module/usbcore/parameters/old_scheme_first
EDIT I discovered that the problem came up again during restart. After a LOT of trial and error, I found that each time I start up, I have to connect the Android device, then set the
old_scheme_first variable, then disconnect and reconnect the device before the VM would recognize it. It's an annoying process, so if anyone has any insight, I'd appreciate it. On the other hand, it's a VM, so I won't have to restart it often =)